The KISS Grammar Workbooks Back to October Menu
(Code and Color Key)

A Man and His Dog
Exercise # 3
Analysis Key

1. "Can my friend," gesturing [#1] {toward his dog}, "come in, too?" [ [#2] the traveler asked]. |
 

2. He remembered dying (DO) [#3], and [DO that the dog walking [#4] {beside him}

had been dead {for years}]. |
 

3. "{Of course} [Inj], sir [DirA]. *You* Come right in, | and I'll have some ice water

(DO) brought [#5] right up." |
 

4. {After another long walk}, and {at the top} {of another long hill}, he came {to a dirt road}

leading [#6] {through a farm gate} [Adj. to "gate" that looked [Adv. to "looked" as if it

had never been closed (P) ]]. | There was no fence (PN) [#7]. |

5. "Doesn't it make you mad [#8] {for them to use [#9] your name {like that}}?" |

6. [Adv. to "saw" As he approached the gate (DO)], he saw a man (DO) inside [#10],

leaning [#11] {against a tree} and reading [#11] a book. |


Notes
1. "Gesturing" is a gerundive to "traveler."
2. Based on the psycholinguistic model of how the brain processes language, KISS treats the "Can" clause as the main and the "traveler" clause as as interjection, even though the "gesturing" phrase splits the main clause. Note that this is a highly unusual construction, a stylistic point that the KISS explanation highlights. KISS does, however, also accept the traditional explanation, which rearranges the sentence to "Gesturing toward his dog, the traveler asked, "Can my friend come in, too?" See the KISS instructional material on subordinate clauses as interjections.
3. "Dying" is a gerund.
4. "Walking" is a gerundive to "dog."
5. "Brought" is a gerundive to "water." At KISS Level Five, some students may prefer to explain  the "water brought" phrase as a noun absolute that functions as the direct object of "will have."
6. "Leading" is a gerundive to "road."
7. "There" can alternatively be explained as an expletive. Note the power of this very short sentence within the context of the story!
8. KISS explains "mad" as a predicate adjective after an ellipsed infinitive "to be." "You" is the subject of the infinitive, and the infinitive phrase is the direct object of "does make." Alternatively, you can try to teach objective complements.
9. "Them" is the subject of the infinitive "to use," and "name" is its direct object. The infinitive functions as the object of the preposition "for," and the prepositional phrase functions as a delayed subject -- "For them to use your name like that makes you mad."
10. This adverbial "inside" is the result of major ellipsis -- a man *who was* inside *the gate.* Thus "inside" is the preposition in an adverbial phrase to the ellipsed "was."
11. "Leaning" and "reading" are gerundives to "man." "Book" is the direct object of "reading."