The KISS Printable Books Page
(Code and Color Key)

Distinguishing Finite Verbs from Verbals
Based on "Casabianca,"
from - Golden Deeds: Stories from History Retold for Little Folk
Analysis Key

1. The Battle {of the Nile} was a great battle (PN) fought {at sea} {between

the British and French} {in the year 1798 [#1] }. |

"A battle fought at sea" fails the sentence test, so "fought" is not a finite verb. [It is a gerundive that modifies "battle."]
2. My father told me to remain here, and not to stir [Adv. to "to remain" 

and to the "not" that modifies "to stir" unless he called me (DO)]. |

"Me to remain here" and "me not to stir" fail both the "to" and the sentence tests. Thus they are not finite verbs. [They are infinitives; their subject is "me"; and they function as the direct objects of "told."]
3. “But,” [ [#2] cried the sailors {in amazement}], “your father lies mortally 

wounded {on deck}, | and the ship will soon blow up.” |

"Wounded" can be explained as part of a passive verb phrase in a palimpsest pattern with "lies" written over "is." (See KISS Level 2.1.4 - Palimpsest Patterns.) Alternatively, it can be seen as a gerundive that modifies "father."
4. A few minutes [NuA] later the figure {of Casabianca} was seen (P) {in the glare}

{of the flames}, leaning {over the prostrate figure} {of his father}. |

"Figure leaning over the prostrate figure" does not pass the sentence test and thus "leaning" not a finite verb. [It is a gerundive that modifies "figure."]
5. Soon after, a terrible explosion shook every ship (DO) {in the bay}, [Adv.

to "shook" while burning fragments {of L’Orient} were hurled (P) {in the air}

falling heavily {to the water} {in all directions}]. |

"Fragments falling heavily" does not pass the sentence test. Thus "falling" is not a finite verb. [It is a gerundive that modifies "fragments."]

1. "1798" is an appositive to "year."
2. Unlike traditional grammars, KISS explains this clause as an interjection. (See KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?)