Introduction to the KISS Grammar Workbooks 2004 North Carolina Trainer Manual
(Code and Color Key)
Exploring Verbs as Direct Objects
Analysis Key

    Note that these sentences are all taken from "Making Pizza" (TA-06) from the 2004 North Carolina Trainers Manual. You might want to have students discuss this essay in the context of the prompt and evaluation criteria from that Manual.

1. We were going to make our own pizza (DO)! |

Most grammar books would consider "were going to make" as a finite verb phrase. (If a student offered "to make" as a direct object of "were going," I would simply accept it.)
2. The man {on TV} was going to tell us (IO) how to make delicious pizza. |
From fourth graders, I would simply accept "how to make delicious pizza" as the direct object of "was going to tell." Technically, "how" is the direct object here, but it is modified by "to make delicious pizza," an infinitive phrase, and meaningfully, the whole phrase is the direct object. I'd also show students how verbs that function as complements (or parts of them) can also have complements. Thus "pizza" is the direct object of "to make."
3. We couldn't wait to begin. |
Although I would also accept "couldn't wait to begin" as the finite verb phrase, you might want to show students that the "to begin" phrase can also be explained either as the direct object of "couldn't wait," or as an adverb that modifies it.
4. Carol and I finished washing our hands. |
"Washing" can be explained as a verb that functions as the direct object of "finished," or it can be considered part of the finite verb phrase. In either case, "hands" is the direct object of "washing."
5. We started to make the pizza. |
"To make" can be explained either as part of the finite verb phrase or as the direct object of "started." In either case, "pizza" is the direct object of "to make."
6. We started making the yummy, tasty pizza. |
"Making" can be explained either as part of the finite verb phrase or as the direct object of "started." In either case, "pizza" is the direct object of "making."
7. The man started talking. |
"Talking" can be explained either as part of the finite verb phrase or as the direct object of "started."
8. The man started to talk. |
"To talk" can be explained either as part of the finite verb phrase or as the direct object of "started."
9. We started eating our nasty pizza. |
"Eating" can be explained either as part of the finite verb phrase or as the direct object of "started." In either case, "pizza" is the direct object of "eating."
10. That disgusting slice {of pizza} almost made me vomit! |
The meaningful answer to "Made what?" here is not just "me," but "me vomit." Thus the verbal phrase "me vomit" is the direct object of "made."