Introduction to the KISS Grammar Workbooks 2004 North Carolina Trainer Manual
(Code and Color Key)

Exploring Verbs as Direct Objects
Exercise # 3: Gerunds as Direct Objects
Analysis Key

     Remember that at this KISS level, the objective is not that students recognize these verbs as gerunds, but simply that they recognize that the verb phrase functions as a direct object, and that it may itself have subjects and complements.

1. We tried playing (DO) {with the buggyboard} {in the pool}. |

2. Soon we started smelling (DO) smoke. |

"Smoke" is the direct object of "smelling."
3. They began swimming (DO) {across the lake}. |

4. I never gave up trying (DO) to ride my bike {without training wheels}. |

Note that "up" is part of the finite verb here because "gave up" means "stopped," and the "up" cannot be dropped. "To ride" is the direct object of "trying," and "bike" is the direct object of "to ride.'
5. We will never try cooking (DO) pancakes again. |
"Pancakes" is the direct object of "cooking."
6. They saw Carol riding her bike. |
"Carol" is the subject of "riding," and "bike" is the direct object of "riding." Thus the entire "Carol riding her bike" is the direct object of "saw." [Note that most traditional grammars would consider "Carol" the direct object and "riding" a "participle" that modifies "Carol." For more on this see "Noun Absolutes that Function as Nouns."