Introduction to the KISS Grammar Workbooks 2004 North Carolina Trainer Manual
(Code and Color Key)

Verbs That Function as Adjectives
Analysis Key

All of these sentences are taken (some slightly modifies, from the North Carolina 2004 writing samples.

1. I lived happily ever after, eating Macaroni and Cheese [#1]. |

2. I ran {down the hall} screaming [#2], [DO "*You* Come on guys [DirA]."] |

3. Getting [#3] up, I tripped {over a chair} and fell {in the pool}. |

4. Screaming [#4], I remembered my floaties (DO). |

5. I felt {like a submarine}, going [#5] down down deep {into the depths} {of the ocean}. |

6. "Chicken!" (DO) he shouted, flopping his arm [#6] {like a bird}. |

7. I was sweating nervously, hoping [#7] {for the best}. |

8. A fake vampire jumped out laughing [#8]. |

9. My sister just sat there looking [#9] {at me}. |

10. My mom was {in the car} driving [#10].|

11. Later I heard a little kid (DO) crying [#11] {because of something}. |

1. "Macaroni and Cheese" is the direct object of the verbal (gerundive) "eating," which modifies "I."
2. The verbal (gerundive) "screaming" modifies "I." The subordinate clause, of course, is its direct object.
3. The verbal (gerundive) "Getting" modifies "I."
4. The verbal (gerundive) "Screaming" modifies "I."
5. The verbal (gerundive) "going" modifies "submarine."
6. "Arm" is the direct object of the verbal (gerundive) "flopping" which modifies "submarine."
7. The verbal (gerundive) "hoping" modifies "I."
8. The verbal (gerundive) "laughing" modifies "vampire."
9. The verbal (gerundive) "looking" modifies "sister."
10. The verbal (gerundive) "driving" modifies "mom." In this case, some people may prefer to see "driving" as part of the finite verb "was driving."
11. The verbal (gerundive) "crying" modifies "kid." When they get to noun absolutes, some students may prefer to see "kid crying" as the core of one.