Introduction to the KISS Grammar Workbooks 2004 North Carolina Trainer Manual
From the Writing of Fourth Graders:
Verbs That Function as Adjectives

     Many verbs that function as adjectives end in "-ing."  You can find what they modify by asking the same "Who or What + verb" question that you do to find the subject of all verbs. These verbs, however, will fail the sentence test, so they are verbals do not underline them twice. Also, like all other verbs, they can have complements, and they are modified by adverbs. For example:

We were watching Mick (DO) playing baseball.
"Watching" is underlined twice, because "We were watching Mick" is an acceptable sentence. But the subject of "playing" is "Mick," and "Mick playing baseball" fails the sentence test. Thus "playing" is a verbal that modifies "Mick," and "baseball" is the direct object of "playing."

Part One: Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. 
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
3. Place brackets [ ] around each subordinate clause. If the clause functions as a noun, label its function. If it functions as an adjective or an adverb, draw an arrow from the opening bracket to the word that the clause modifies.
4. Place a vertical line after each main clause.
5. Label each interjection ("Inj"), each noun used as an adverb ("NuA"), and each example of direct address ("DirA").
6. Make a box around each verbal and draw an arrow from the box to the word that the verbal modifies.
 

1. I lived happily ever after, eating Macaroni and Cheese.

2. I ran down the hall screaming, "Come on guys."

3. Getting up, I tripped over a chair and fell in the pool.

4. Screaming, I remembered my floaties.

5. I felt like a submarine, going down down deep into the depths of the ocean.

6. "Chicken!" he shouted, flopping his arm like a bird.

7. I was sweating nervously, hoping for the best.

8. A fake vampire jumped out laughing.

9. My sister just sat there looking at me.

10. My mom was in the car driving.

11. Later I heard a little kid crying because of something. 



Part Two: Write a sentence like those above with a verbal that is used as an adjective.