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Distinguishing Finite Verbs from Verbals -- Ex # 3
[from "Thumbelina," in Andrew Lang's The Yellow Fairy Book]
Analysis Key through KISS Level Three (Clauses) +

Remember that the primary objective here is that students should not underline the verbals twice. The students should not be expected to remember the names or functions of the verbals, but for those who may be interested, I have placed those explanations in brackets.

1. The sun shone {on the water} and made it sparkle {like the brightest silver}. |

"It sparkle" will not make an acceptable sentence. ["It" is the subject of the infinitive "sparkle"; the infinitive phrase is the direct object of "made."]
2. But there, {to her astonishment}, she found a tiny little man (DO) sitting {in the 

middle} {of the flower}, as white and transparent [Adv. to the preceding "as" as if he

were made (P) {of glass}]. |

"Man sitting" will not make an acceptable sentence. ["Sitting" is a gerundive that modifies "man." "White" and "transparent" are post-positioned adjectives to "man." "Were made" is subjunctive.]
3. The old toad was down {under the marsh}, decorating her room {with rushes and 

yellow marigold leaves}, to make it very grand {for her new daughter-in-law}. |

"The old toad decorating her room" is not an acceptable sentence. ["Decorating" is a gerundive to "toad," and "room" is its direct object. "To make" is an infinitive that functions as an adverb to "decorating." "It" is the subject, and "grand" is a predicate adjective to an ellipsed infinitive -- "it *to be* grand." This infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "to make."]
4. {In the middle} {of the path} lay a dead swallow, his pretty wings pressed close {to

his sides}, his claws and head drawn {under his feathers}; | the poor bird had evidently

died {of cold}. |

"His pretty winds pressed close to his sides" does make an acceptable sentence, so expect many, if not all, students to mark this as a subject and finite verb. Indeed, most experienced readers will process these words as a subject and finite verb -- they very well could be, especially if what follows "sides" were another main clause. But "claws and head drawn" will not make an acceptable sentence. Thus "drawn" is not a finite verb. Note that it would be, if it included "were" -- "sides, and his claws and head were drawn under his feathers." This additional "were" would make all the verbs finite. [Without the "were," "claws and head drawn" is a noun absolute that functions as an adverb to "lay." This will lead some readers to reprocess "wings pressed" as meaning "wings were pressed," thus making it also a noun absolute that functions as an adverb to "lay."