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The Shark
From Child-Story Readers: Wonder Stories 3
Analysis Key

     Note: Although this is a relatively long story for an exercise, most students should be able to finish it in ten minutes or less. It is word-for-word from the original. 

How Much I Can Explain

     You might want to point out to students how many of the words they can already explain.
     There are 217 words in the text. If we:
1.) include all the adjectives, adverbs, and coordinating conjunctions,
2.) exclude the eleven verbals and other words that remain in black in the following, and
3.) exclude the five subordinating conjunctions ("Although," "what," "for," "that," and "for"), and
4.) assume that the students will get the two pronouns that function as subjects in subordinate clauses {"which lives," and  "which aid"),
then 217 - 11 - 5 = 201. And 201 / 217 = 93 %!

1.     [Adv. (Concession) to "find" Although Nature has made many strange

creatures (DO) to live [#1] {at a great depth} {under the sea}], we find just as

queer and interesting fish (DO) living [#2] {in [OP what we call the surface

waters [#3] ] }. |

2.     Long ago there [#4] were great giant sea animals (PN) [Adj. to "animals"

that were {of far greater size} [#5] {than those} {of today}]. | Whales and sharks

belong {to these giants}. |

3.     Man fears the sharks (DO) more {than any other creature} [#6], great [#7] 

or small [#7], [Adj. to "creature" which lives {in the sea}]. | The white shark is 

the most dreaded monster (PN) {in the deep}. | Many are armed (P) {with

strong, sharp, cutting teeth} [Adj. to "teeth" which aid them (DO) [#8] {in their

hunt} {for large fish}]. | These creatures will attack men (DO) | [#9] and

they can tear off a leg (DO) or even bite {through the trunk} {of a man} 

{with ease}. |

4.     Sharks often follow ships (DO). | Sailors catch these huge fishes 

(DO) {by using a great hook [#10] } baited [#11] {with a piece} {of meat}. | The

hook is fastened (P) {to a chain}, [Adv. to "is fastened to a chain" [#12] for the 

great jaws and teeth {of the fish} would bite {through a rope} {with ease}]. |

5.      Some sharks are enemies (PN) {of large whales}. | Whales have 

often been found (P) {with pieces} bitten [#13] {out of their tails} {by these animals}. |

6.     We know [DO that a long time [NuA] ago many giant sharks swarmed 

{in the sea}], [Adv. (cause) to "know" for [#12] {upon the bottom} {of the ocean} 

their teeth are found (P) {by bushels}]. |


Notes
1. "To live" fails both the "to" and the "sentence" tests, thus it is not finite and should not be underlined twice. [It is a verbal (an infinitive). As such, its function can be described in three different ways, each of which implies a slight difference in meaning. For one, it could be considered an adverb (of purpose) to "has made." Second, it can be seen as an adjective to "creatures." Finally, it can be seen as part of the direct object of "has made." In this sense, "creatures" becomes the subject of the infinitive, and thus "creatures to live" is the direct object of "has made." In other words, nature did not so much make the creatures, as it made them live at a great depth.]
2. "Fish living in what we call the surface waters" fails the sentence test. Thus "living" is a verbal. [It is a gerundive that modifies "fish."]
3. At this KISS Level, I would be happy and simply accept "waters" as the direct object of "call." [When they get to Level 3 and study subordinate clauses that function as objects of prepositions, students will see that in some cases (like this one), part of the direct object in the subordinate clause is replaced by a subordinating conjunction. Here, for example, the unsubordinated clause would be "we call them the surface waters." When subordinated, the "them" is replaced by "what," so that this becomes "what we call the surface waters." The internal structure, however, remains the same -- "them" ("what") is the subject and "waters" is a predicate adjective to an ellipsed infinitive *to be.* The infinitive phrase is the direct object of "call." (You can see why this explanation is delayed until students have a better understanding of clauses.)]
4. For an alternative explanation of "there," see KISS Level 2.1.3 - Expletives (Optional).
5. "Of far greater size" can also be described as a predicate adjective. "Than those" can alternatively be explained as an ellipsed subordinate clause -- "than those of today are of great size." Either way, the "than" functions as an adverb to "greater."
6. "Than any other creature" can be explained as a prepositional phrase -- which is what I would expect at this KISS Level. Note, however, that that explanation hides a structural ambiguity. If we view this as an ellipsed clause, it means "more than *he fears* any other creature," and not "more than any other creature *fears the sharks*." 
7. "Great" and "small" are post-positioned adjectives. See KISS Level 5.5 - Post-Positioned Adjectives.
8. Some grammarians may see "them" as an indirect object because it can function as the subject of an infinitive after "aid," as in "the teeth aid them hunt . . . ."
9. Note that the two main clauses are joined by "and" without a comma.
10. "Using" fails the noun test, so it should not be underlined twice. ["Hook" is the direct object of the gerund "using." The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition "by."]
11. "A great hook baited with a piece of meat" fails the sentence test. ["Baited" is a verbal (gerundive) that modifies "hook."]
12. See KISS Level 3.2.2 - "So" and "For" as Conjunctions.
13. "Pieces bitten out of their tails" fails the sentence test. ["Bitten" is a verbal (gerundive) that modifies "pieces."]