The Printable KISS Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

Finite Verb or Verbal?
Based on “Crow Talk”
From FRIENDLY FAIRIES Written & Illustrated by Johnny Gruelle
Analysis Key

Note: The primary objective of this exercise is to teach students (using the three tests in the instructional materials) not to underline verbals twice. The notes include information for teachers on the types of the verbals.

1. The second old crow plumed his feathers (DO) and screwed his head (DO) 

around to get a better view [#1] {of the little boy} lying [#2] {under the tree}. |

"To get" does not pass the "to" test. "Lying" does not pass the sentence text because "boy lying under the tree" is not an acceptable sentence.
2. Then Daddy Dorn took two large handfuls (DO) {of golden pennies} {from the 

golden penny box} | and they watched the box (DO) fill [#3] up {with pennies} again. |

"The box fill up with pennies" does not pass the sentence test.
3. There [#4] is always someone (PN) {out in front} {of Dickie Dorn’s house} eating [#5] 

{from the candy and the ice cream box} and filling their pockets [#6] {with golden pennies}. |

Neither "someone eating" nor "someone filling their pockets" passes the sentence test. Thus "eating" and "filling" are not finite verbs.
4. Dickie cried | and he took a pencil stub (DO) {from his pocket} | and, {with much

twisting [#7]} {of mouth} and {*with much* thinking [#7]}, he printed his name (DO) 

{upon the box}. |

"Twisting" and "thinking" both function as objects of "with" and are thus not finite verbs.

1. "View" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "to get." The verbal functions as an adverb (of purpose) to "screwed."
2. "Lying" is a verbal (a gerundive) that functions as an adjective to "boy."
3. "Fill" is a verbal (an infinitive). When they get to infinitives, students will see that "box" is the subject of the infinitive and that the entire infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "watched."
4. Alternatively, "There" can be explained as an expletive.
5.  "Eating" is a verbal (a gerundive) that modifies "someone."
6. "Pockets" is the direct object of the verbal (gerundive) "filling," that also modifies "someone."
7. "Twisting" and "thinking" are verbals (gerunds) that function as the objects of the preposition "with." The sentence is somewhat awkward in that it can easily be read as meaning "...twisting (of mouth and thinking. I would expect third graders to be confused here because they have not yet had much instruction in ellipsis.